Selection of places and site 


For construction of the building it is very essential that we must choose a good place and site. We construct the building and spend whole of our life there. It becomes the center for our business, and trade. There is no meaning in constructing a grocery store, where there are no residential places.  Our ancients have described the suitable place for construction of town, village and capitals. Let us go through their teachings.

Bhojadeva in his treatise “ samarangana Sutradhara” describes them.  The place surrounded by mountains, forests, and field is known as “Nagara”. If the place contains only field and surrounded by fort, with trench around is known as “pura”. Vast agricultural field is known as “khetha”. Filed where in rare bushes, with salty soil and therein no much water resources, that is called “jangala”.  If it is low level filed with abundant water and fish like creatures live there, and high rise trees are grown, it is known as “Anupa”. Normal leveled place where neither cold nor hot weather persists is known as “sadharana”.

All such places are categorized into 16 categories. They are 1.Balishaswamini 2. Bhogya 3.Sitha 4. Gochararakshni 5. Apashrayavathi 6. Kantha 7. Khanimatyatmadharini 8. Vanikaprasaditha.  9. Dravya sampanna 10.Amitraghatini 11. Ashreni purusha 12. Saukhyatamantha 13. Deva matraka 14. Dhanya 15. Hastivanopetha 16. Suraksha.

Now let us understand the nature of these 16 category of places.

  1. Balisha swamini:- Soil which is enjoyed by the children and satvik people happily want to become its owners, is called as Balishswamini. ( That is place where in River, or creeks flow whole year and beautiful with red soil).
  2. Bhogya:– The place or field, to which king easily charges 1/6th of its produce as revenue to the state, or state revenue equal to, what a prostitute charges for her customer, that rich field which a rich can only be able buy, is called bhogya
  3. Sitha: – Land where in, between two hillocks Small River is flowing, and is bifurcating the vast field in the middle, looks like line bisecting the forelock, is called sitha.
  4. Gochara rakshini: – Land which is suitable for agriculture and having vast fields which provides a good fodder to cattle’s, is known as Gochararakshini.
  5. Apashrayavathi: – Land covered by hillocks, forests, and sufficient plain land in the middle, giving a feeling that land is safe from invaders, is known as apashrayavathi.
  6. Kantha: – Land having forests, gardens, flower gardens, brooks, very pleasant in all respect is known as Kantha.
  7. Khanimathi: – Land having ores like,  Silver, Gold, Copper, Salt, etc is known as Khanimathi.
  8. Atmadharini: – Hillock with forest and vast plain land at the top, so that kings like to construct their capital, treasury, armory is known as Atmadharini.
  9. Vanika prasadika: – Vast land surrounded by rich agricultural land, so that it is suitable for establish trade centre, is known as Vanikaprasadika.
  10. Dravyasampanna: – Vast land suitable for growing vegetables, and includes a forest with valuable trees like Sala, Khadira, Shriparna, Ashoka, Pithasala, is known as Dravyasampanna.
  11.  Amitraghatini: – Land where common people can reside with peace, and have comfortable life, is known as Amitraghatini.
  12. Shaktasamantha: – Land where Learned, kings, live enthusiastically without any trouble.
  13. Devamatrika:- Agriculture land which is not  relaying on rain, having rivers, irrigation is known as Devamatrika
  14. Dhanya: – Fertile land where in any crop can be grown, without much effort is known as Dhanya.
  15. Hastinavati: – Forest land which is suitable for life of elephants, and where in kings can have their army of elephants is known as Hastinavathi.
  16. Suraksha: – Land with mountain peaks, deep river, very difficult to access, is known as suraksha.

They have also described many other characteristics, let us see them now. Land Surrounded by big boulders, creepers, shrubs, flowering plants, Having ores of precious metals, having hillocks, and brooks, with forests with flowering trees, and abundant honey having beautified by singing peacocks, having rivers, tanks, vast land for growing grains, having abundant availability of fodders for cattle’s, having no thorny bushes, and no contemptible people residing area which is suitable to be called Ngara, Pura, or Khetha.

Vast land above the hillock with abundant water facility is called “Durga”. (Fort on hill top).

Hillock surrounded by thorny bushes, deep rivers or brooks with ravine, fearsome place to enter is known as “Mooladurga”.

Island with sweet water availability is called “jaladurga”.

Land with soft soil, clean and pure, having tanks, trees, an eastern side is submerged with water, Durva Grass in the north, sufficient land for growing grains, medicinal planets, sufficient land available for constructing bungalows, alters, temples, flower gardens, vehicle stands, enjoyable places to roam around for couples, is suitable for Pura or Pattana.( Town ship).

Land suitable for Red sandal, sandal, camphor, Cardamom, like trees and crops, white colored having the odor of Panchmratha(Mixture of Cow dung, urine, milk, curd, and honey) is suitable for Brahmins.

Land abundant with flowers, like jasmine, lotus, having the odor of wine, red in color is suitable for Kshatriyas.

Land suitable for growing oil seeds like sesame and coriander etc, yellow in color having the odor of rice gruel is suitable for all.

White, Red, Yellow and Black soils are suitable for Brahmins,Kshatriyas, Vishay’s, and Shudras respectively. Similarly by taste Sweet or tasty, Astringent, Pungent, and bitter are suitable for Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and shudra, respectively.

Place where cold in summer, hot in cold season, hot in rainy season is good. If the sound of tabors, lutes, flutes, elephant s steeds and oceans, is good land.

Now let us know about the land or site which should be avoided or discarded for establishing a village, town or construction of a house.

Land with full of ash, charcoal, coal, or having skeletons of animals, and humans, hairs, nails, dry skins, stones, rat holes, ant hills, must be avoided.

Barren lands, full of thorny bushes, low lying land, land with full of cracks and holes, which is not useful to grow any thing, salty land, land where water is flowing from west to south, land with full of ups and downs, land with mountain peaks or very high rise lands, are also not suitable for village or towns or constructing a house.

Land where in though trees, and plants but are not flowering or bearing any fruits, very dry, having no smell, with thorny bushes, sour soil, where birds which live on dry skin and flesh, or rotten flesh, land with full of insects , variety of ants, is also not suitable for village or town or house.

Though the good sounds are hearing water is flowing from East to North, plants are growing very slowly and baked foods gets perished quickly, plant once grown could not be grown again, Such land is also not suitable for habitation.

If the soil is having the odor of oil, or corpse, or of blood, or of urine, or excreta, or with full of feathers, globules of excreta, or of the gray color , or multi colored, or colorless, or rough having no signs of good soil, that is also not suitable for habitation.

Land that tastes, salt, sour, astringent, and also such that seems to be not liked by the people should also be discarded for habitation. One must also ignore the land which is susceptible to touch as pungent, rough, shod, very hot, or cold, of un cherished norms.

Land where in sound of jackal, camel, Cur, or dog, donkey, or noise of broken jar or utensils, should not be considered as cherish able.

Thus one should judge the land by smell, and materials available, as auspicious, or inauspicious, and also checking by a ploughshare.

One should understand the danger of fire in case of brick extraction or extraction of stones or pebbles. In case of bones extraction is done there destruction of lineage should be foretold.

In case of many reptiles in the land, shows the danger from thieves.

Kamikagama classifies the land in little different way.

  1. Shaiva Land: Land where in valuable tree like black speck, wood apple, pipal tree, wild date, silk cotton, flowering plants grow is known as Shaiva.
  2.    Brahmin Land: Land wherein trees like bael, cotton, kusha grass, grow is known as Brahmin land.
  3. Vaishnava Land: Land where in Tamarind, Bamboo, Indian beech, hibiscus, etc and animals like deer live are called Vaishnava land.
  4. Indra land: Land where in banana, jackfruit, mango, Indian gooseberry, etc grow is known as Indra land.
  5. Auksha land: Land wherein rabbit, jackal, wild cat live some type of short trees called ankole, grow is known as Auksha land.
  6. Bhautika land: – Land wherein flowering plants, small trees grow and having an odor of ash is known as Bhautika.
  7. Asura (demon) Land: Land where in Cashew trees, garlic, etc grow, and eagle, and cruel animal live and having bad smell is known as Asura.
  8. Paishachika (devil) Land: – Land where in Bombax, beleric etc grow and camel, fox, ass live with bad smell is known as Paishachika.
  9. Rakshasa Land: – Land where down trodden people, thieves reside, poisonous plants grow, people suffer from headache, and have the odor of chilly and jiggery is known as Rakshasa.
  10.  Vayuvya Land: – Land filled with small pebbles, where foxes live, which bring sorrow and poverty, are known as Vayuvya.
  11. Varna Land: Land where areca nuts grow, rich and satisfy all is called Varana or Varuna.

It seems this classification describes the social status of the time rather than explaining the nature of the land.

Soil Testing:-Dig the earth in a 1 cubic feet of land, and refill the soil again in the pit. If soil remains excess after refilling, the land is good for habitation. If the soil becomes less or insufficient to pill up the pit, land is inferior and not suitable for habitation.

As told above while digging if gems, corals etc are found it is good, if bones, ashes, hairs are found it is not suitable for habitation.

After digging the pit it should be filled with water. Then go hundred steps away, comes back if water level still remains the same, it is good soil for habitation. If it has gone to the middle level or below, it is inferior and not suitable for habitation.

Similarly whatever the color of soil suitable for four classes of society (white, red, yellow, black) water should be filled in the fit. If by next day all the water dries up and soil also becomes dry that land is not suitable for habitation to any class of society. If little water remains or at least soil remain wet , that land is suitable for habitattion.

Saw the seeds of sesame, gram, or Mustard, if it sprouts in three days is it good soil.

An oil lamp is lit on all four directions of the site, with same quantity of oil and observed, which lamp lasts longer.  On the basis of direction of the lamp land is treated as suitable for that class of the society.

After going through the above descriptions, it strikes to our mind that it is not possible in the present day society to adhere to it. But we must know what they have told about, how to establish a Town, Fort, Village etc.

For protecting the village or fort, they used build the fort and around it there will be a deep canal of water, and there is only one entrance to the village, or fort. If necessary there will another secret road of exit. They give importance to natural safty rather than artificial one.

They opine that land shoud be elevated at Soth and west directions and dipression in East and North directions. Water bodies, tanks, canals should be in the Noth and East directions. Soil should be fertile, at least not dry and lifeless. It is judged by inspecting the plants and trees grown in the surrounding.

If it is found unfertile it may made fertile by ploughing 100 times and each time adding natural manure and making cows to gaze the land.

Coming to the selection of site they clearly mention that site should be square or rectangle. Other shapes are considered as in auspicious. Of course separate results where given for different shaped sites.

shape Results
Hexagonal Prosperous
East –West Rectangle All types of wealth and prosperity.
North –South Rectangle Ok but medium good.
Square Increae of wealth and all round success.
Circle Gives wisdom to incombants
Concave Brings happiness.
Octagon Brings poverty
L-shaped Un happiness
Triangle Loss due to dipsute.
Cart Shaped Loss of wealth. Chronic Diseases
 Stick shaped Destruction of pets. And cows. Fear of enemy
Stick shaped Destruction of pets. And cows. Fear of enemy
Tortoise or odd angled Possibility of arrest, or in jail.
Plus shaped Eye diseases
Tabor shaped Destruction of clan, and spouse.
Half circle Poverty and loss of relatives
Hand pan Poverty.

Though few shapes other than Rectangle were told good , Construction must be rectangle or square.

Site in any other shape, is not good. It must be converted into rectangle shape, by creating a boundry( wall or fense).

Sites are normally named according to the direction of road. That is site having the raod on Eastern direction is known as 1. East site. 2. Site with road on West direction as West site. 3. Site with Road on North direction as North site. 4. Site with road on South direction as South site, Etc.

But  before purchasing any site one must analyse the lay out of the area. It must be elevated towards South or West, depressions at Noth and  East. It also applies to your site. If it is not so it can be made so artificially( manually) . Water bodies like River, Tank, Sea, Canal, Water tanks, bore wells, should be at North or East. High rise buildings, tall trees, Forest, Hillocks etc should be at South or West.

Roads can be in any directions but it should not end infront of your site,especially  at the West of South west or North of  North West side of your site. The good omens, when you are standing  in your site is considered as auspicious.

Temples , Church, or Mosque at the center of the Lay out, is auspicious. But  beside  your site is not good. Similarly community halls, schools, tombs, workshop of blacksmiths, smoking factories in the vicinity of your site should be avoided.